VRx aquatics Killi Crypts Shrimp Plant species Enclycloaquaria CoF Invert Taxa

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What the world looked like when Crypts began evolving [1]
See also http://info.killi.net/biology/evolution/geologic/

1) did the COR forms originate with UST? as the land masses tore part divegence would have occured.

2) did the ancestral form or COR "loop back" on itseld viz. the australian aponogetons. That is assume COR (2n=34) originated in thailand then spread to borneo then sumartra/west malaya. we can't asume radiation is unidirection so if COR reached Borneo from Sumatra but by then both forms had eovlved a bit and for wehat ebver reason produced a 2N=68 plant - the nominal COR of Borneo then if that plant made it back to thailand then one more helping of 34 chomosomes from an original COR plant there plus the 68 from the bornei plant makes he 105 found in thiland. the 2n=85 COR could be a 2n=68 plant merged with *half* a 2n=24 plant.

3) man as apossible vector for genetic material. pieces of roots stick in boars or take along as decoraiton, food, scrap, what have you. they could survive weeks in a damp salt free place... possible use as medicine may cause human forcing of radiative pressure.

4) Can you graft a rootstock? That is, cut a large rhizome in two. now prepare a graft and join it back together. Does it heal and grow? Now try this with two seperate species. Does that grow? What plants emerge. Now repeat that but get the middle part to grow whwre the graft is and kill of the rest. if it possible to get a hybrid or perhaps triploid or quadraploid plant if it grows from the region o fthe rhizome where the graft was. this gets interesting if the rhizome is a gametophyte and the thallus a sporophyte.

5) whach came first, the root or the plant? Did they evolve from other plants, or did they evolve as a rhizome that at some point began sprouting?

6) "Failure of meiotic reduction during gametogenesis is widely acknowledged to be the main mode of polyploid formation. To get insight into its role in the dynamics of polyploidy generation under natural conditions, and coexistence of several ploidy levels, we developed a general gametic model for diploid-polyploid systems. This model predicts equilibrium ploidy frequencies as functions of several parameters, namely the unreduced gamete proportions and fertilities of higher ploidy plants. We used data on field ploidy frequencies for 39 presumably autopolyploid plant species/populations to infer numerical values of the model parameters (either analytically or using an optimization procedure). With the exception of a few species, the model fit was very high. The estimated proportions of unreduced gametes (median of 0.0089) matched published estimates well. Our results imply that conditions for cytotype coexistence in natural populations are likely to be less restrictive than previously assumed. In addition, rather simple models show sufficiently rich behaviour to explain the prevalence of polyploids among flowering plants."

7) "valuable information on the genetic basis of floral and vegetative traits, including dominance, and progeny ratios. In water lilies, results of breeding studies have revealed that vegetative traits are inherited mainly from the female parent, and floral traits from the male parent (Pring, 1934a,b; Masters, 1974)."
http://www.eeb.uconn.edu/people/les/Manuscript_Files/AquatBot_44(181)%5B1993%5D.pdf page 187

[1] Bogner, Josef and Johnson, Kirk R. and Kvacek, Zlatko and Upchurch, Garland R., "New fossil leaves of Araceae from the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene of western North America" (2007). Faculty Publications-Biology. https://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/2570

[2] Ploidy frequencies in plants with ploidy heterogeneity: fitting a general gametic model to empirical population data Proc. R. Soc. B January 22, 2013 280 1751 20122387; 1471-2954 [3] ECOLOGY AND DNA FINGERPRINTING OF CRYPTOCORYNE - big plants are bigger. shows drift within one species PALLIDINERVIA ENGLER (ARACEAE) ACCESSIONS USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION M13 UNIVERSAL PRIMER I.B. IPOR1, W.S. HO, C.S. TAWAN, M.S. SALMIZANA and M. NORYATIMAH Faculty of Resource Science & Technology University Malaysia Sarawak 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak Malaysia 1E-mail: ibipor@unimas.my

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